TypeScript 3.0: The unknown Type

TypeScript 3.0 introduced a new unknown type which is the type-safe counterpart of the any type.

The main difference between unknown and any is that unknown is much less permissive than any: we have to do some form of checking before performing most operations on values of type unknown, whereas we don't have to do any checks before performing operations on values of type any.

This post focuses on the practical aspects of the unknown type, including a comparison with the any type. For a comprehensive code example showing the semantics of the unknown type, check out Anders Hejlsberg's original pull request.

The any Type

Let's first look at the any type so that we can better understand the motivation behind introducing the unknown type.

The any type has been in TypeScript since the first release in 2012. It represents all possible JavaScript values — primitives, objects, arrays, functions, errors, symbols, what have you.

In TypeScript, every type is assignable to any. This makes any a top type (also known as a universal supertype) of the type system.

Here are a few examples of values that we can assign to a variable of type any:

let value: any;

value = true;             // OK
value = 42;               // OK
value = "Hello World";    // OK
value = [];               // OK
value = {};               // OK
value = Math.random;      // OK
value = null;             // OK
value = undefined;        // OK
value = new TypeError();  // OK
value = Symbol("type");   // OK

The any type is essentially an escape hatch from the type system. As developers, this gives us a ton of freedom: TypeScript lets us perform any operation we want on values of type any without having to perform any kind of checking beforehand.

In the above example, the value variable is typed as any. Because of that, TypeScript considers all of the following operations to be type-correct:

let value: any;

value.foo.bar;  // OK
value.trim();   // OK
value();        // OK
new value();    // OK
value[0][1];    // OK

In many cases, this is too permissive. Using the any type, it's easy to write code that is type-correct, but problematic at runtime. We don't get a lot of protection from TypeScript if we're opting to use any.

What if there were a top type that was safe by default? This is where unknown comes into play.

The unknown Type

Just like all types are assignable to any, all types are assignable to unknown. This makes unknown another top type of TypeScript's type system (the other one being any).

Here's the same list of assignment examples we saw before, this time using a variable typed as unknown:

let value: unknown;

value = true;             // OK
value = 42;               // OK
value = "Hello World";    // OK
value = [];               // OK
value = {};               // OK
value = Math.random;      // OK
value = null;             // OK
value = undefined;        // OK
value = new TypeError();  // OK
value = Symbol("type");   // OK

All assignments to the value variable are considered type-correct.

What happens though when we try to assign a value of type unknown to variables of other types?

let value: unknown;

let value1: unknown = value;   // OK
let value2: any = value;       // OK
let value3: boolean = value;   // Error
let value4: number = value;    // Error
let value5: string = value;    // Error
let value6: object = value;    // Error
let value7: any[] = value;     // Error
let value8: Function = value;  // Error

The unknown type is only assignable to the any type and the unknown type itself. Intuitively, this makes sense: only a container that is capable of holding values of arbitrary types can hold a value of type unknown; after all, we don't know anything about what kind of value is stored in value.

Let's now see what happens when we try to perform operations on values of type unknown. Here are the same operations we've looked at before:

let value: unknown;

value.foo.bar;  // Error
value.trim();   // Error
value();        // Error
new value();    // Error
value[0][1];    // Error

With the value variable typed as unknown, none of these operations are considered type-correct anymore. By going from any to unknown, we've flipped the default from permitting everything to permitting (almost) nothing.

This is the main value proposition of the unknown type: TypeScript won't let us perform arbitrary operations on values of type unknown. Instead, we have to perform some sort of type checking first to narrow the type of the value we're working with.

Narrowing the unknown Type

We can narrow the unknown type to a more specific type in different ways, including the typeof operator, the instanceof operator, and custom type guard functions. All of these narrowing techniques contribute to TypeScript's control flow based type analysis.

The following example illustrates how value has a more specific type within the two if statement branches:

function stringifyForLogging(value: unknown): string {
  if (typeof value === "function") {
    // Within this branch, `value` has type `Function`,
    // so we can access the function's `name` property
    const functionName = value.name || "(anonymous)";
    return `[function ${functionName}]`;

  if (value instanceof Date) {
    // Within this branch, `value` has type `Date`,
    // so we can call the `toISOString` method
    return value.toISOString();
  return String(value);

In addition to using the typeof or instanceof operators, we can also narrow the unknown type using a custom type guard function:

 * A custom type guard function that determines whether
 * `value` is an array that only contains numbers.
function isNumberArray(value: unknown): value is number[] {
  return (
    Array.isArray(value) &&
    value.every(element => typeof element === "number")

const unknownValue: unknown = [15, 23, 8, 4, 42, 16];

if (isNumberArray(unknownValue)) {
  // Within this branch, `unknownValue` has type `number[]`,
  // so we can spread the numbers as arguments to `Math.max`
  const max = Math.max(...unknownValue);

Notice how unknownValue has type number[] within the if statement branch although it is declared to be of type unknown.

Using Type Assertions with unknown

In the previous section, we've seen how to use typeof, instanceof, and custom type guard functions to convince the TypeScript compiler that a value has a certain type. This is the safe and recommended way to narrow values of type unknown to a more specific type.

If you want to force the compiler to trust you that a value of type unknown is of a given type, you can use a type assertion like this:

const value: unknown = "Hello World";
const someString: string = value as string;
const otherString = someString.toUpperCase();  // "HELLO WORLD"

Be aware that TypeScript is not performing any special checks to make sure the type assertion is actually valid. The type checker assumes that you know better and trusts that whatever type you're using in your type assertion is correct.

This can easily lead to an error being thrown at runtime if you make a mistake and specify an incorrect type:

const value: unknown = 42;
const someString: string = value as string;
const otherString = someString.toUpperCase();  // BOOM

The value variable holds a number, but we're pretending it's a string using the type assertion value as string. Be careful with type assertions!

The unknown Type in Union Types

Let's now look at how the unknown type is treated within union types. In the next section, we'll also look at intersection types.

In a union type, unknown absorbs every type. This means that if any of the constituent types is unknown, the union type evaluates to unknown:

type UnionType1 = unknown | null;       // unknown
type UnionType2 = unknown | undefined;  // unknown
type UnionType3 = unknown | string;     // unknown
type UnionType4 = unknown | number[];   // unknown

The one exception to this rule is any. If at least one of the constituent types is any, the union type evaluates to any:

type UnionType5 = unknown | any;  // any

So why does unknown absorb every type (aside from any)? Let's think about the unknown | string example. This type represents all values that are assignable to type unknown plus those that are assignable to type string. As we've learned before, all types are assignable to unknown. This includes all strings, and therefore, unknown | string represents the same set of values as unknown itself. Hence, the compiler can simplify the union type to unknown.

The unknown Type in Intersection Types

In an intersection type, every type absorbs unknown. This means that intersecting any type with unknown doesn't change the resulting type:

type IntersectionType1 = unknown & null;       // null
type IntersectionType2 = unknown & undefined;  // undefined
type IntersectionType3 = unknown & string;     // string
type IntersectionType4 = unknown & number[];   // number[]
type IntersectionType5 = unknown & any;        // any

Let's look at IntersectionType3: the unknown & string type represents all values that are assignable to both unknown and string. Since every type is assignable to unknown, including unknown in an intersection type does not change the result. We're left with just string.

Using Operators with Values of Type unknown

Values of type unknown cannot be used as operands for most operators. This is because most operators are unlikely to produce a meaningful result if we don't know the types of the values we're working with.

The only operators you can use on values of type unknown are the four equality and inequality operators:

  • ===
  • ==
  • !==
  • !=

If you want to use any other operators on a value typed as unknown, you have to narrow the type first (or force the compiler to trust you using a type assertion).

Example: Reading JSON from localStorage

Here's a real-world example of how we could use the unknown type.

Let's assume we want to write a function that reads a value from localStorage and deserializes it as JSON. If the item doesn't exist or isn't valid JSON, the function should return an error result; otherwise, it should deserialize and return the value.

Since we don't know what type of value we'll get after deserializing the persisted JSON string, we'll be using unknown as the type for the deserialized value. This means that callers of our function will have to do some form of checking before performing operations on the returned value (or resort to using type assertions).

Here's how we could implement that function:

type Result =
  | { success: true, value: unknown }
  | { success: false, error: Error };

function tryDeserializeLocalStorageItem(key: string): Result {
  const item = localStorage.getItem(key);

  if (item === null) {
    // The item does not exist, thus return an error result
    return {
      success: false,
      error: new Error(`Item with key "${key}" does not exist`)

  let value: unknown;

  try {
    value = JSON.parse(item);
  } catch (error) {
    // The item is not valid JSON, thus return an error result
    return {
      success: false,

  // Everything's fine, thus return a success result
  return {
    success: true,

The return type Result is a tagged union type. In other languages, it's also known as Maybe, Option, or Optional. We use Result to cleanly model a successful and unsuccessful outcome of the operation.

Callers of the tryDeserializeLocalStorageItem function have to inspect the success property before attempting to use the value or error properties:

const result = tryDeserializeLocalStorageItem("dark_mode");

if (result.success) {
  // We've narrowed the `success` property to `true`,
  // so we can access the `value` property
  const darkModeEnabled: unknown = result.value;

  if (typeof darkModeEnabled === "boolean") {
    // We've narrowed the `unknown` type to `boolean`,
    // so we can safely use `darkModeEnabled` as a boolean
    console.log("Dark mode enabled: " + darkModeEnabled);
} else {
  // We've narrowed the `success` property to `false`,
  // so we can access the `error` property

Note that the tryDeserializeLocalStorageItem function can't simply return null to signal that the deserialization failed, for the following two reasons:

  1. The value null is a valid JSON value. Therefore, we would not be able to distinguish whether we deserialized the value null or whether the entire operation failed because of a missing item or a syntax error.
  2. If we were to return null from the function, we could not return the error at the same time. Therefore, callers of our function would not know why the operation failed.

For the sake of completeness, a more sophisticated alternative to this approach is to use typed decoders for safe JSON parsing. A decoder lets us specify the expected schema of the value we want to deserialize. If the persisted JSON turns out not to match that schema, the decoding will fail in a well-defined manner. That way, our function always returns either a valid or a failed decoding result and we could eliminate the unknown type altogether.

This post is part of the TypeScript Evolution series.